Tag Archives: printing

One-Way Street & Other Writings by Walter Benjamin

One-Way Street

Walter BenjaminOne-way Street and other Writings, (2009) London: Penguin. ISBN:978-0-141-18947-5.

On the critique of violence, (1921) is an essay considering the use of violence as a form of law enforcement and justice.  An interesting essay for studying documentary theory.

There is an essay on surrealism and an essay about a Czech writer that I had not heard of but who sounds interesting Franz Kafka. I shall look for examples of his work.

A collection of essays that include Brief History of Photography, (1931) that looks at the early development of photography and such influencing works as August Sanders.

Also included is The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, (1936) Benjamin examines how photography has made the great art classics more available to be seen by the mass public but by doing so he considers that there value has diminished in virtue of the rarity for public access.  He then goes on to look at cinema as a new art form and how this form of media is changing and influencing art both politically and culturally.

Notes of interest for, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936)

  • Benjamin argues that recent technology has fundamentally changed the meaning of reproduction in art.
  • He argues that art has always been reproducible by limited technological means since the times of Ancient Greece by means of casting and embossing for bronzes, terracottas and coins.  Then much later came printing.
  • Until the development of photography and gramophone the reproduction of most art forms could retain their genuineness through provenance.
  • However photography and the gramophone has fundamentally changed the meaning of reproduction of art as a whole.
  • A piece of art holds its status of genuineness through provenance and provenance is beyond technological reproduction.
  • Something reproduced by manual means still holds its genuineness (even when branded a forgery).
  • Something reproduced by modern technological means does not.  For example a Brahms symphony reproduced in a concert hall 150 years after Brahms’ death still retains its genuineness.  However, if recorded and then played back the genuineness.  A painted copy (manual reproduction) of the Mona Lisa retains a genuineness.  However, a photograph (technological reproduction) of the Mona Lisa does not.
  • With the new technological reproduction of photography and gramophone, the reproduced works of art has now a new meaning: one that can go anywhere and be enjoyed by anyone. A symphony concert can now be enjoyed in a living room or a priceless Rembrandt painting from the pages of a book.
  • New methods of technological reproduction has also provided new ways in which to experience beyond the range of our normal senses for example slow motion and macro-photography.
  • Although technological reproduction does not physically alter or effect the original, it does alter the original’s value.  Its here and now is devalued.
  • The genuineness of a thing is the quintessence of everything about it since its creation that can be handed down, from its material duration to the historical witness duration to the historical witness that it bears. The latter (material duration and historical witness) being grounded in the former (the thing’s genuineness), what happens in the representation, where the former has been removed from human perception, is that the latter also starts to wobble. Nothing else, admittedly; however, what starts to wobble thus is the authority of the thing. (233).
  • The above passage suggests that when the genuineness has been removed the material duration and its historical witness becomes questionable.
  • ‘We can encapsulate what stands out here by using the term ‘aura’. We can say: what shrinks in an age where the work of art can be reproduced by technological means is its aura.’ (233)
  • Reproductive technology, we might say in general terms, removes the thing reproduced from the realm of tradition.  In making many copies of the reproduction, it substitutes for its unique incidence a multiplicity of incidences.  And in allowing the reproduction to come closer to whatever situation the person apprehending it is in, it actualises what is reproduced. (233)
  • Art’s meaning alters over time.
  • Within major historical periods, along with changes in the overall mode of being of the human collective, there are also changes in the manner of its sense perception. (234).  ‘A classical statue of Venus, for example, occupied a different traditional context for the Greeks, who made of it an object of worship, than for medieval clerics, who saw it as a threatening idol.’ (236)
  • ‘Works of art are received and adopted with different points of emphasis, two of which stand out as poles of each other. In one case the emphasis is on the work’s cultic value; in the other, on its display value.’ (237)
  • Much wisdom had already been thrown away on deciding whether photography was an art (without asking the prior question: whether, with the invention of photography, the very nature of art had undergone a change), but before long the theoreticians of film were asking a similarly hasty question. (240)
  • The fact that the work of art can now be reproduced by technological means alters the relationship of the mass to art.  From being very backward (faced with a Picasso, for instance), it has become highly progressive (given, say, Chaplin).  Yet this progressive response is characterised by the fact that in it the pleasure of looking and experiencing is associated, directly and profoundly with the stance of passing an expert judgement.  The link is an important social indicator.  In fact, the more the social significance of an art diminishes, the greater the extent (as clearly turning out to be the case with painting) to which the critical and pleasure-seeking stances of the public diverge. (248-249)

 

 

 

Reflection of my assessment feedback

_DSC9085-resized

1# I HAVE RECENTLY BEEN MADE REDUNDANT

I have just received my Formative feedback from my Tutor and am pleased to learn that he liked my work.

Shaun Mullins – 512659 – Photography 1 Context & Narrative – Assignment 2

This project like all the others I have had so far have been great learning-curves both in angle and in a sense of achievement.  All good.

Fortune was smiling on me when I set-up this shot as I simply filled the waste-paper bin of paper rubbish that I had rescued from our recycling bin and the sales brochure with JUST YOU happened to find it’s way to the top of the heap or I may have most likely not noticed it!

My Tutor comments on the text captions and choice of various font size.  When I came to printing I simply went by what I thought looked right.  This worked for this occasion; but I take my Tutors point and must not make this a habit.

My Tutor commented on the image with the Mars bar, that the word BELIEVE on the Mars wrapper was a little too obvious.  On reflection, I would probably agree.  However, this was not a trick of Photoshop the Mars packaging was genuinely labelled BELIEVE on all the bars that came out of a family-pack of six Mars bars purchased from a supermarket.

My Tutors comment regarding the last two images being portrait rather than landscape is also an interesting comment to remember.  I did not realize that the change in framing format would make a difference and therefore this is something I must try to keep in mind for future projects going forward.

The last image that I produced in colour, I had intentionally wanted the colour to be a dominant green to represent growth, hope and a new start (green for go).  However, again his comments are all useful and his suggested idea for an alternative image is good and simple.

I still have a lot to learn about printing; but my first attempt was acceptable at least and again I appreciate my Tutors advice.

One area of my study that I have neglected is visiting exhibitions and taking advantage of study days.  This I will start address from next week going-forward.

Also I appear to not be fully meeting my colleges strict copyright code, again this I need to address.

I am relieved that my assignment passed and that I can concentrate on my next assignment.

 

The Mystery of P.I.Y. (Printing It Yourself)

I have just purchased and successfully setup a printer for producing quality photographs.  To be honest I have been postponing this day simply due to my frustrating experience with I.T.  I began life with photography in the darkroom; so I am comfortable with the wet developing process but software and hardware compatibility leaves me cold through a working life of bitter experiences!  The prospect of having to struggle with printers, software and computers has not been a happy one for me in the past.  However, I have bitten the bullet and within a day I was successfully printing photos to send to my Tutor for assessment.

The tipping point in the decision to take the plunge was as a result of unsuccessfully getting my assignment two photos printed satisfactorily from a third-party.  On checking with my Tutor he was insistent that my prints should be consistent and of high quality.  I consulted my student forum for advice and one of my fellow students recommended the Canon PI7250 which is available for around £50.  At first I was annoyed with my Tutor; but on reflection realized he was right and I was being silly.  So I purchased a printer from Amazon on next working day delivery and had it running by late evening on the same day of delivery.  I am using a colour Spyder4 to calibrate my screen and I downloaded an up to date printer driver in order to be able to create a reliable printer profile for Lightroom and Photoshop.

I have set Photoshop and Lightroom for 300PPI and made sure the printer is set to high quality on slow output setting.